Dark matter

This composite image shows the galaxy cluster 1E 0657-56, also known as the

Dark Matter isn’t made up of baryons unlike normal matter, which is a combination of protons and neutrons. Dark matter doesn’t interact with electromagnetic forces. it doesn’t absorb or emit light, it doesn’t even reflect it like normal matter. The only way it can be detected is through its gravitational pull on normal matter.


Schwarzchild Radius

Source -astronomyonline.org

Source -astronomyonline.org

Anything can become a black hole if you compress it to a small enough point, this is known as Schwarzchild radius, or gravitational radius. For example, if you shrunk The Earth to the size of a peanut, you get a black hole, also if you shrunk Mount Everest to the size of a nanometer you get a black hole.

Detecting Sound



Receptors in the ear are stimulated by vibrations of sound waves. Such vibrations are transmitted and amplified through a system of first air-filled and then fluid-filled cavities. In the cochlea, layers of receptors cells with hairlike projections bend in response to the vibrations, firing off signals to the brain. Semicircular canals in the inner ear are responsible for balance: as the head tilts and moves, the flow liquid stimulates hair cells to send impulses to the brain.

What are the odds?

lightningIn each egg and sperm, there are millions of possible combinations of genes. That means that there are trillions of combinations that could result! This combination of genes creates an individual with genes in an order that has never happen before and will never occur again. With the exception of identical twins, no two people are ever alike. To put it into perspective, a person in the United States has approximately a 1 in 700,000 chance of getting struck by lightning in any given year. That means you would have a better chance of getting struck by lightning millions of times in one year then guessing an exact combination of genes.

Source: Genetics a Living BluePrint

Climate change -updated

Our planet faces a future of extreme weather so whether you call it Global Warming or Climate Change the effects are the same. We have seen our planet is getting hotter and increasing the chances of weather disasters. We have witnessed record heat, droughts, severe storms, and fire already. When connecting the dots between climate change and the effects we are seeing with the weather and health, the lines are clear. Our Earth is saying something but it is up to us to listen and pay attention to the signs. But why should we care about one degree of warming? After all, the temperature fluctuates by many degrees every day where we live. I will explain this all to you.
People have claimed that the earth is going through a natural phase and in part that is true, but we also have to look at the evidence that we have sped it up and made the Carbon Dioxide levels rise that much more and faster. To look at these changes scientists have sent out satellites to measure the fluctuations in the sun’s energy. The historical record shows that the climate system varies naturally over a wide range of time scales. These variations have been small in comparison to human influences in the past several centuries. This means that the humans, since the industrial age, have produced six billion tons of carbon dioxide from the factories that have been built. The main component that was burnt was coal which was one of the main sources of energy.

The global average temperature increased by more than 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit since 1880-2012. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the decade from 2000-2010 was the warmest on record, and 2010 was tied with 2005 as the warmest year on record. Rising global temperatures have experienced changes in rainfall resulting in more intense rain, as well as more frequent and severe heat waves, the planets oceans and glaciers have also experienced changes oceans are warming and becoming more acidic, ice caps are melting, and sea levels are rising. Scientists have pieced together a picture of Earth’s climate, dating back hundreds of thousands of years, by analyzing a number of indirect measures of climate such as ice cores, tree rings, glacier lengths, pollen remains, and ocean sediments, and by studying changes in Earth’s orbit around the sun. So because of this our oceans tend to warm and cool more slowly than land areas, continents have warmed the most.

A one-degree global change is significant because it takes a vast amount of heat to warm all the oceans, atmosphere, and land by that much. In the past, a one-to two-degree drop was all it took to plunge the Earth into the Little Ice Age. A five-degree drop was enough to bury a large part of North America under a towering mass of ice 20,000 years ago. Last year, the sea surface temperatures in the subtropical Atlantic were as much as 1.1 degrees Celsius (2 degrees Fahrenheit) above normal, and about half of this increase can be attributed to global warming. So this is stating that day-to-day weather in a warmer world may remain about the same, but extreme events become more extreme. Warming oceans may not produce more tropical storms and hurricanes – they may even produce fewer – those storms will be more intense, and with longer dry spells between them. We are already seeing this with New Orleans hurricane Katrina being as intense as it was then the next year there weren’t any hurricanes. We also see this with tornadoes as we also were involved in a F5 in Alabama in 2011, that also went through five states killing 537.

Don’t get me wrong, Carbon Dioxide is a major factor for our survival, it’s a necessary ingredient for plants to perform photosynthesis. It’s also a critical component for our atmosphere because CO2 plays a vital role in regulating earth’s surface temperature through Radiative Forcing. However, you can have too much of a good thing. The excess carbon dioxide we are adding to our atmosphere increases global temperatures leading to climate changes that can harm plants and humans. Just because the action is heating, doesn’t mean the temperatures can’t plunge. If the ozone layer is depleting and the atmosphere is heating up, the daytime will be hotter and the night will be colder.

The good thing about science it’s true whether you belive in it or not. Some of the consequence of burning fossil fuels is that the sea level is rising and can cause some serious damage to our city’s. We our melting ice caps trust from releasing carbon. Want to know why venus is the way it is? Its from carbon dioxide that it atmosphere it almost a hundred percent carbon, and Venus is 900 degrees. The reason its that high of a temperture is because of the green-house gas effect trapping all the heat in. Even though everyone is saying, ‘Save the Earth, Save the Earth’ the Earth is fine, we are the ones that are going to render ourselves extinct. Earth will recover and return back to it’s perfect self. Everything on Earth can live just fine without us. Take the Black Rhino for an example, it was surviving long before us and is now the newest addition to the body count of extinct animals.

There is solutions to prolong the extend our damage by climate change and give our future children a fighting chance. For starters we can cut carbon pollution by reducing our dependence on fossil fuels and increasing our use of clean renewable energy. We can also implement policies that help us prepare for flooding, drought, storms, and other consequences of climate change. But first, we need national leadership that will stop ignoring those facts that we have a global issue. We can only try to prolong our stay on this beautiful, blue and green, gas ball that we love to call home but soon our host is going to fight back and shake us off like a bad case of fleas. We need to be taking care of our Mother Earth and stop acting like a parasite. Hopefully our generation can find a cure for this sickness we have created.

We can’t solve problems by using the kind of thinking we used when we created them.

– Albert Einstein

Dang…. That’s over a thousand words. 😉

Effects of Tobacco

Nicotine, the major drug found in tobacco, is a stimulant. A stimulant is a is a drug that increases the activity of the central nervous system. When tobacco is inhaled, nicotine is absorbed into the bloodstream through the lining of the mouth and through the lungs. Nicotine is quickly transported throughout the body, penetrating the brain, all other organs, and, in pregnant women, the fetus.

Now what are the effects of tobacco? Nicotine increases blood pressure and heart rate while decreasing the oxygen supply to body tissue and the blood supply to the hands and feet. Nicotine is an addictive drug. In addiction, the user of a drug becomes dependent on the drug and cannot function comfortably without it. Nicotine is a poison-60 mg of nicotine is a lethal dose for an adult. But nicotine is not the only poison found in tobacco. There are more than 2,000 potentially toxic chemical compounds produced when tobacco is burned. collectively, these are called tars.
Tars are complex mixtures of chemicals and smoke particles produced by burning tobacco. Tars paralyze the cilia that line the air passages. Cilias move particles out of the air passages and protect from diseases-causing microorganisms. Tars irritate the nose, throat, trachea, and bronchial tubes, causing sore throat and coughing.
Eventually, tars settle in the lungs. The result is reduction in breathing capacity and increased susceptibility to infections. The lungs of a smoker look much
different from those of a none smoker due to accumulation of tars.

smokers lungs

Why are Sunsets Red?

sunsetWhy are most sunsets red? For exactly the same reason that the sky is blue. When the Sun is at the horizon, its rays have to travel through more atmosphere, and the green, blue, and violet light get scattered the most-filtered out of the light, basically. By the time the light reaches our eyes-and the clouds above us-it’s made up largely of yellow, orange, and especially red. That’s why the sky sometimes almost appears to be on fire at sunset and sunrise.