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Dark matter

This composite image shows the galaxy cluster 1E 0657-56, also known as the

Dark Matter isn’t made up of baryons unlike normal matter, which is a combination of protons and neutrons. Dark matter doesn’t interact with electromagnetic forces. it doesn’t absorb or emit light, it doesn’t even reflect it like normal matter. The only way it can be detected is through its gravitational pull on normal matter.

Schwarzchild Radius

Source -astronomyonline.org

Source -astronomyonline.org

Anything can become a black hole if you compress it to a small enough point, this is known as Schwarzchild radius, or gravitational radius. For example, if you shrunk The Earth to the size of a peanut, you get a black hole, also if you shrunk Mount Everest to the size of a nanometer you get a black hole.

Detecting Sound

Source-www.carolinaear.com

Source-www.carolinaear.com

Receptors in the ear are stimulated by vibrations of sound waves. Such vibrations are transmitted and amplified through a system of first air-filled and then fluid-filled cavities. In the cochlea, layers of receptors cells with hairlike projections bend in response to the vibrations, firing off signals to the brain. Semicircular canals in the inner ear are responsible for balance: as the head tilts and moves, the flow liquid stimulates hair cells to send impulses to the brain.

Top 10 Deadliest Animals

  1. blogDeathstalker Scorpion – Leiurus quinquestriatus

This scorpion can be found in the desert scrub land habitats ranging from North Africa to Middle East, mainly in Israel. The females length is about 4 inches while the males are about three inches in length.

Their venom is a powerful mixture of neurotoxins. Though their sting is extremely painful it wouldn’t normally kill a healthy adult human but those with allergies or with heart issues are at the greatest risks of death. Regardless, you should to seek medical attention immediately to prevent lungs from filling up with fluid that can cut off the air flow.

  1. King Cobra – Ophiophagus Hannahking cobra

The King Cobra has gotten his name from being a very menacing and demands the attention when it looks a grown human in the eyes. They can reach an intimidating 18 feet in length and making them one of the longest venomous snakes.  The venom from the King Cobra consists primarily of neurotoxins but it also contains cardiotoxic compounds. The bite from these deadly snakes may result in a rapid fatality which can be as early as 30 minutes after envenomation. The King Cobra’s envenomation was even recorded to be capable of killing elephants within hours with just seven milliliters of its venom.

  1. Brazilian Wandering Spider – Phoneutriabrazilian wandering spider

With the Latin name such as Phoneutria, meaning murderess, you can imagine just how deadly they are. The Guinness Book of World Records has named the Brazilian Wandering Spider the world’s most venomous spider. There are eight species of this wandering spider and all can be found in Brazil. Some of these species also can be found in Latin America, Costa Rica and Argentina. Brazilian Wandering Spider is extremely fast and extremely venomous. Though they are very venomous and are highly aggressive, they cannot easily bite humans since their fangs are not formed to attack large preys. If they are able to bite you, their bites are extremely painful and it is caused by the neurotoxin PHTX3 on the serotonin receptor sites on the nerves located throughout our body.

  1. Stonefish – Synanceiastonefish_0

The Stonefish is a fish that is also in the scorpionfish  family. They are found in tropical waters and along warm shorelines of coastal United Sates and Indo-Pacific Ocean. In some cases they have been found in rivers. They are famous for blending in with the rocks at the bottom of the ocean and for members of their family that are venomous. Their dorsal is area is lined with 13 spines which can be dangerous if stepped on. Their venom is excruciating painful and causes a great deal swelling that rapidly develops and causes death to the tissues. The venom of a Stonefish can kill a person in two hours.

  1. Inland Taipan – Oxsuranus MicrolepidotasTaipan

The Inland Taipan inhabits the black soil plains in the region where Queensland, South Australia and the Northern Territory borders converge. The average length in size is 2 meters (6 feet) and there isn’t really any difference between a male and female.  It is very rare for humans to be bitten and in few cases that have occurred. The Inland Taipan produces drop for drop the most toxic venom of any snake in the world. One bite possesses enough punch to kill 100 full grown men or one bite can kill 200,000 mice. It contains potent presynaptic neurotoxic and can also contains potent procoagulants. Their venom is loaded with taipoxin.

  1. Puffer Fish – Tetraodontidaestonefish_0

The Puffer Fish is one that you can find often at your local pet store but they are one of the most deadly fishes. They are found in the warm waters of the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. There are 121 different kinds of Puffer Fish in the wild. This deadly fish contains tetrodotoxins, a substance that makes them foul tasting and often lethal to fish. To humans, tetrodotoxin is deadly up to 1,200 times more than cyanide and there is no known antidote. Tetrodotoxin is a neurotoxin occurring in Puffer Fish, ingesting of it is usually fatal due to heart failure or asphyxiation.

  1. The Marbled Cone Snail – Conus MarmoreasCmarmoreus-Scott&JeanetteJohnson-12

This species of snail is found in the Indian Ocean along Chagos and Madagascar in the Bay of Bengal along India in the western part of the Pacific Ocean to Fiji and the Marshall Islands. How does a Marbled Cone Snail inject venom into its victims? Good question. It does it through a tiny hollow tooth injecting it by firing tiny hallow teeth out of their snouts. They feed on various things including fish, worms and mollusks. The Cone Snail has the world’s fastest acting venom. You actually can’t feel the sting because it also uses a painkiller. It has up to a hundred different toxins. One drop of this venom from this snail can kill twenty people.

3.Blue Ring Octopus – Hapalochlaenablue-ringed-octopus

This beautiful but deadly marine animal lives in Australia and the eastern Indo-Pacific. The blue rings are only visual when the octopus is about to attack and kills its predators that disturb it by biting them. Their bites are relatively painless but this octopus injects a neuromuscular paralyzing and it also contains a maculotoxin, a poison more violent than any found on land animals. Their venom is secreted along with their saliva that gets into the bite wound and quickly spreads around the body.

  1. Golden Dart Frog – Phyllobates terribilisGolden-Poison-Dart-Frog

The Golden Dart Frog is lives in the rainforest of Central and South America and on a few Hawaiian Islands. They range in size from 1.3-5.1 cm (0.5-2 inches) and the females are longer in size. They got their names from the indigenous people of Western Columbia that found a way to harvest their poison to put on the end of their darts. These deadly frogs have the most powerful toxin in the world. They have a very potent Alkaloid called Batrachotoxin. It’s at times more potent than strychnine. The only natural predator of the Golden Dart Frog is Leimadophis Epinepyeius, a snake that has developed a resistance to the frogs poison

1. Australian Box Jellyfish – Carukia barnesiBox_jellyfish

As with the name they are located off the coast of Australia. A fully grown Australian Box Jellyfish can get as big as 20cm along each box side or 30cm in diameter and their tentacles can get as long as 3 meters in length. The Australian Box Jellyfish is claimed to be the most venomous marine animal known to mankind and its sting is often fatal. Its venom is among the most deadly in the world, containing toxins that attack the heart, nervous system and skin cells. Stings of this jellyfish have severe consequences due to its cardiotoxic (effect on the heart), neurotoxic (damageto the nerves) and dermatonecrotic (effects on the skin) compenis. Australian Box Jellyfish have caused at least 63 deaths in Australia since 1889.

Climate Change Effect

Ice core data mauna loa800k years of co2 dataThese are graphs of CO2 levels there are many different core sample graphs from all over the world and they all say about the same thing.strong_asi_melting_1979_2012Arctic_Sea_Ice_Minimum_ComparisonThese are just a few from google images, there are many online that show how much ice has melted. In 2012, the ice cap to the north almost completely defrosted, but refroze to 60% of average by the next winter, an obvious drastic shift caused by climate change. It never froze to reach the amount that was there thirty years ago.  Antarctica has areas that are melting while other areas are colder.  Oceans ‘warming’ does not mean a tropical paradise for the whole planet, the currents could change along with the poles and the north pole could be centered over Texas after this last co2 spike is done and the ice age comes.

The more I study science the more I believe in God.

-Albert Einsein